Single responsibility

  • Avoid god class.

  • ONE kind of funtionality in ONE class.


  • Open for extension

    • E.g.: Additional field in the class

    • E.g.: Additional method in the class

  • Closed for modification

    • expose only what is necessary using an interface or abstract class.

Liskov’s substitution principle

Is a kind of strong behavioral subtyping

if S is a subtype of T, then objects of type T may be replaced with objects of type S without altering any of the desirable properties of T (correctness, task performed, etc.).
— Liskov substitution principle
Example classes
class Engine {
  powerInKiloWatt = 120

  status = OFF

    this.status = ON

      return this.status

class ElectricEngine extends Engine {
  energyType = AC  // A simple difference to class 'Engine'


Applying this rule to the example classes, then Engine can be replaced with ElectricEngine without altering it’s behavior. There should be no difference in the behavior of the classes Engine and ElectricEngine.

void main(args){

    Engine e = new Engine()
    assert e.getStatus() == ON

    ElectricEngine ee = new ElectricEngine()
    assert ee.getStatus() == ON

Interface segragation

  • Avoid a god interface.

  • Group functionality by semantic use cases into interfaces.

  • E.g.: Persistence Layer that differs between reading and modifying data instaed of a simple CRUD interface.

IReadOnly {

IModify {
  createPerson(name, age);
  updatePerson(name, age);

This is the basic idea behind the CQRS pattern.

Dependency inversion

Avoid to depend on concrete implementations, especially when you expect change!

Examine this on a typical 3-tier application.

Implementations depend directly on each other


A possible implementation in pseudo code:

class PersonController{
    PersonServiceImpl service = new PersonServiceImpl()

class PersonServiceImpl {
    PersonRepositoryImpl repo = new PersonRepositoryImpl()

class PersonRepositoryImpl {
    Connection con = Connector.createRdbmsConnection()

Implementations decoupled with interfaces

To resolve the direct dependencies, introduce an interface for each concrete implementation. * The concrete implementation of the PersonServiceImpl gets an Interface: PersonService

interface PersonService {

class PersonServiceImpl implements PersonService {
    PersonRepositoryImpl repo = new PersonRepositoryImpl()
  • The consuming class PersonController can now depend on the interface instead of the concrete instance.

  • This is called dependency inversion.

class PersonController{
    PersonService service = new PersonServiceImpl()

Applied to all participants:

But, why is this important?

Because implementations can change! And it is very useful to change behavior in a controlled way, like using different data types for different behavior. So we need two implementations for each data base type RDBMS and NoSQL doing the same thing: Persist a Person object.

E.g. Introducing a new persistence type: NoSQL

  • Rename the PersonRepositoryImpl to PersonRepositoryRDBMS

  • Add a new class PersonRepositoryNoSQL

interface PersonRepository {

class PersonRepositoryRDBMS implements PersonRepository{

class PersonRepositoryNoSQL implements PersonRepository{
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